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多层陶瓷外壳电镀层气泡的成因和解决措施深讨

更新时间:2017-12-24 来源:电刷镀 标签:

摘 要:本文对多层陶瓷外壳电镀层气泡的成因进行了深讨和分析。在实际工作的基础上,提供了解决气泡应采取的措施。

GUANJIANCI:DUOCENGTAOCIWAIQIAO,DIANDUCENGQIPAO,CHENGYINHEJIEJUECUOSHI

ZHONGTUFENLEIHAO:TN305.94 WENXIANBIAOSHIMA:A WENZHANGBIANHAO:1681-1070(2005)07-14-03

1 前言

多层陶瓷外壳是多层陶瓷金属化底座和金属零件(外引线框架、封结环、散热片等)采用银铜焊料钎焊而成的。而金属化材料一般为钨(W)或钼(Mo)-锰(Mn),外引线和封结环材料一般为铁(Fe)-镍(Ni)-钴(Co)合金或铁(Fe)-镍(Ni)合金材料,散热片材料一般为钨(W)-铜(Cu)或钼(Mo)-铜(Cu)合金材料。在多种材料上,要先镀镍镀金看一集电视剧赚60元,并要保证镀层的质量符合产品标准的要求,这是由一定难度的。在电镀中一般常见的质量问题时镀层的起皮和气泡问题,本文探讨的是在电镀后在外观检验或高温老炼时出现针尖小泡后,在电镀生产工艺中应该采取的措施。

2 多层陶瓷外壳的电镀工艺

多层陶瓷外壳的电镀工艺一般均为先镀镍后镀金。为了保证产品的键合、封盖、可焊性、抗潮湿、抗盐雾等性能指标符合要求,外壳的镀镍通常采用低盈利氨基磺酸镍镀镍,镀金通常采用低硬度纯金(金纯度为99.99%)镀金。多层陶瓷外壳的电镀工艺流程如下:

DENGLIZIQINGXI→CHAOSHENGBOQINGXI→HANLIAOQINGXI→LIUDONGZILAISHUIQINGXI→DIANJIEQUYOU→LIUDONGZILAISHUIQINGXI→SUANXI→QULIZISHUIQINGXI→YUDUNIE→QULIZISHUIQINGXI→SHUANGMAICHONGDUNIE→QULIZISHUIQINGXI→YUDUJIN→QULIZISHUIQINGXI→MAICHONGDUJIN→QULIZISHUIQINGXI→REQULIZISHUIQINGXI→TUOSHUIHONGGAN。

CAIYONGZHEIGEGONGYILIUCHENGKEYIQUEBAOWAIQIAODIANDUHOUDUYEDECANYULIANGJINKENENGDIXIAO。

3 电镀气泡的成因

看一集电视剧赚60元ZAIDUOCENGTAOCIWAIQIAODIANDUSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGDUCENGQIPAO,ZHUYAOSHIDUNIECENGQIPAO,ZAIDUNIEHEDUJINSHENGCHANLIANXUJINXINGDEQINGKUANGXIAYIBANSHIHENSHAOFASHENGDUJINCENGQIPAODE。

DUNIECENGQIPAODEYUANYINYIBANYUQIANQICHULIBULIANG、QIANCHULIGEGONGXUJIANDEQINGXIBUGOUCHONGFENYOUGUAN;QICI,DUNIERONGYEZHONGDEZAZHIGUODUOYENENGYINQIQIPAO;DISAN,QIANCHULIRONGYESHIYONGSHIJIANGUOZHANG,ZAZHIGUODUOYENENGYINQIQIPAO;DISAN,QIANCHULIRONGYESHIYONGSHIJIANGUOZHANG,ZAZHIGUODUO,MEIYOUJISHIGENGHUAN,FEIDANMEIYOUDADAOQIANCHULIDEMUDE,FANIRIZHANWULECHANPINCONGERYINQIQIPAO。 DUOCENGTAOCIWAIQIAODUNIECENGQIPAOGENJUFENBUBUWEIYUJITICAILIAODEBUTONG,YIBANFENWEIJINSHUHUAQUYUQIPAO、YINXIANKUANGJIAHEFENGJIEHUANQIPAO、HANLIAOQUYUQIPAOHESANREPIANQIPAO,YOUYUJITICAILIAODEBUTONG,CHANSHENGQIPAODEYUANYINYEBUJINXIANGTONG。

3.1 金属化区域气泡

JINSHUHUAQUYUQIPAODEYUANYINSHIYOUYUDUNIECENGNEIYINGLIJIAODA。NIECENGYUDIJINSHUDEJIEHELIBUZUYIXIAOCHUZAIGAOWENLAOLIANSHINIECENGZHONGDEREYINGLI,SHIYINGLIJIZHONGCHUCHUXIANQIPAO。YIBANDISHUOZHEIZHONGQIPAO,ZAICAIYONGGUANGLIANGDUNIESHI,ZAITAOCIJINSHUHUAQUZUIRONGYICHUXIAN。ZAICAIYONGANJIHUANGSUANNIEDUSHI,ZAITAOCIJINSHUHUAQUZUIRONGYICHUXIAN。ZAICAIYONGANJIHUANGSUANNIEDUANNIESHI,QIDUNIECENGYINGLIJIAOXIAO,YIBANBUHUICHUXIANZHEIGEWENTI。

3.2 引线框架和封接环起泡

YINXIANKUANGJIAHEFENGJIEHUANQIPAOSHIYOUYUQIBIAOMIANSHOUDAOZHANWU,BUQINGJIE,ZHENGCHANGDIANDUGONGYIZHONGDEQIANCHULIGONGYIBUNENGQUCHUZHEILEIZHANWUWU,HUOQIANCHULIGONGYIBUZHENGCHANG,ZAOCHENGZHANWUWUQUCHUBUGANJING,SHIDUNIECENGYUJITIJINSHUDEJIEHELICHA,CONGERZAOCHENGQIPAO。

3.3 焊料区域起泡

看一集电视剧赚60元HANLIAOQUYUQIPAOSHIYOUYUQIANGONGXU--QIANHANGONGXUZAILINGJIANZHUANGPEIJIQIANHANGUOCHENGZHONGGONGYIKONGZHIBUYANGE,QIANHANDELINGJIANBUQINGJIE,HUOZAIQIANHANGUOCHENGZHONGYIBUFENSHIMOWEILI(C)ZHANFUZAIHANLIAOBIAOMIAN,DIANDUHOUZAIHANLIAOQUYUYOUSHIMOWEILIZHANWUDEBUWEIJIUHUICHANSHENGQIPAO。

3.4 散热片起泡

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看一集电视剧赚60元ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,DIANDUQIPAODECHENGYINZHUYAOYOU:YOUYUQIANGONGXUZAOCHENGDEZHANWUYINQIDEWAIQIAOBIAOMIANBUQINGJIE,ERDIANDUQIANCHULIYOUWEINENGJIANGZHANWUWUQUCHUDIAOERCHANSHENGQIPAO;ZAIDIANDUQIANCHULISHI,GEGONGXUDERONGYE、SHIJIAN、WENDUKONGZHIBUHAOHUOCAOZUOBUDANGDOUHUISHIWAIQIAOBIAOMIANDEZHANWUWUBUNENGQUCHUGANJINGERYINQIQIPAO;QIANHANSHIWAIQIAOZHANSHANGDESHIMOWEILI,ZHIHENZHANWUDENG,YONGCHANGGUIDEQIANCHULIGONGYISHIHENNANCHULIGANJINGDE,CONGERCHANSHENGQIPAO;ZHENGDUNIERONGYEDEZAZHILIZINONGDUSUIZHEBEIDUCHANPINSHULIANGDEZENGJIAERZENGJIA,SHIDUNIECENGDEYINGDUZENGJIA,CONGERSHIDUNIECENGDEYINGLIZENGJIA,YINFAQIPAO。

YINCI,YAOJIEJUEWAIQIAODIANDUNIEQIPAOWENTI,BIXUCONGQIANGONGXUZUOQI,TONGSHI,KONGZHIHAOQIANCHULIGONGYIHEDUNIEGONGYI。

4 解决电镀层起泡的措施

4.1YANGEGONGYIWEISHENG

看一集电视剧赚60元ZAITAOCIWAIQIAOSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,BIXUDUIGEDAOGONGXUDEGONGYIWEISHENGZUOCHUYANGEGUIDING,BUYUNXUYONGSHOUZHIJIEJIECHUCHANPIN,RENHESHIHOU、RENHEQINGKUANGXIADOUBIXUDAIZHITAOFANGNENGJIECHUCHANPIN。

ZAIWAIQIAOQIANHANQIAN,BIXUDUIZHUANGPEIDINGWEISHIMOZHOUJISHIMOLINGJIANJINXINGYANGEQINGXI。ZAIJIAGONGZHUANGPEIDINGWEISHIMOZHOUSHI,ZHOUBIAOMIANDESHIMOWEILIYILIUJIAODUO,WEILEBIMIANSHIMOWEILIDUICHANPINDEZHANWU,BIXUDUISHIMOZHOUJINXINGYANGEQINGXI;QICI,BIXUDUIZHUANGPEIDINGWEISHIMOZHOUJIQILINGJIANJINXINGTUIQINGCHULI,YIJIANSHAOQIJIAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGSHIMOLINGJIANBIAOMIANDEQITAWURANWU;DISAN,YAODINGQIDUIQIANHANLUJINXINGQINGLI,QINGCHULUNEIDESHIMOWEILI,FANGZHILUNEIDESHI

MOWEILIZHANWUDAOCHANPINSHANGQU。

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4.2 严格钎焊工艺

DUOCENGTAOCIWAIQIAOJINSHULINGJIANDEQIANHAN,KEYIXUANZEDANQIBAOHUQIANHANLUHUOQINGQIBAOHUQIANHANLUJINXINGQIANHAN,DANSHI,CAIYONGDANQIBAOHUQIANHANLUQIANHANSHI,DANQIDECHUNDUBIXUDAYUDENGYU99.99%。ZAIQIANHANGUOCHENGZHONG,BIXUYANGEQIANHANGONGYI,TEBIESHIQIANHANLULUWENBUNENGGUOGAO。YIBANDISHUO,ZAICAIYONGAg72/Cu28HANLIAOSHI,QIANHANWENDUBUNENGCHAOGUO950℃,SHIJIANBUNENGCHAOGUO5FENZHONG。ZHEISHIYOUYUWENDUGUOGAOHUOSHIJIANGUOZHANGHOU,HANLIAOCONGGUTAIRONGHUACHENGYETAISHI,YIFANGMIANHUICHUXIANQIHUA,ZAOCHENGHANLIAONEIBUCHUXIANFENGWOZHUANGZUZHI,JIANGDIQIANHANQIANGDU;LINGYIFANGMIANSHIMOWEILIHUIQINRURONGHUADEHANLIAO,PIAOFUZAIHANLIAOBIAOMIAN,ZAIHANLIAOLENGQUEHOUBEIHANLIAOBAOGUOYIBUFEN,LINGYIBUFENFUZAIHANLIAOMIANSHANG,ZAIDIANDUQIANCHULISHIWUFAJIANGQIQUCHU,CONGERZAIDUNIEDUJINHOU,YOUSHIMOWEILIDEDIFANGJIUHUICHANSHENGQIPAO。ZHEIZHONGSHIMOWEILIQIPAO,SHICHANGGUIDIANDUQIANCHULIGONGYIWUFAJIEJUEDE。WOMENCENGSHITUCAIYONGYANGDENGLIZIQINGXI,XIWANGJIANGSHIMOWEILIYANGHUADIAO,DANSHIXIAOGUOBINGBUMINGXIAN。ZHINENGYONGYANGEQIANHANGONGYILAIJIEJUEZHEIYIWENTI。

4.3 严格前处理工艺

看一集电视剧赚60元WAIQIAODIANDUDEQIANCHULIGONGYIYUWAIQIAOBEIDUBIAOMIANDEQINGJIEXINGYOUZHEZHIJIEDEGUANXI,SHIJIEJUEDIANDUQIPAODEGUANJIAN。YINCI.YIGEYANGEYOUXIAODEQIANCHULIGONGYISHIJIEJUEDIANDUQIPAODEGENBENBAOZHENG?QIANMIANSUOSHUDEQIANCHULIGONGYI:DENGLIZIQINGXI→CHAOSHENGBOQINGXI→HANLIAOQINGXI→LIUDONGZILAISHUIQINGXI→DIANJIEQUYOU→LIUDONGZILAISHUIQINGXI→SUANXI→QULIZISHUIQINGXI,SHIWOMENDUONIANLAIYIZHICAIYONGDECHENGSHUGONGYI。DANSHI,CHENGSHUGONGYIYEBUSHIYICHENGBUBIANDE,BIXUGENJUCHANPINHEHUANJINGQINGKUANGZUOSHIDANGDIAOZHENG。

看一集电视剧赚60元LIRU,DANGDONGTIANSHIWENXIAJIANGZHI0℃SHI,SUANXIRONGYEYINGSHIDANGJIAWENHUOSHIDANGYANZHANGSUANCHULISHIJIANYITIGAOSUANCHULIXIAOGUO,FOUZE,JIANGHENNANQUCHUJINSHUBIAOMIANDEYANGHUACENG。YOURU,DANGQIANHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHANPINSHANGSHIMOWEILIZHANWUYANZHONGSHI,KEZAIDENGLIZIQINGXIQIANZENGJIAYIDAOJUMOPAOGUANGGONGYI,YIQUCHUSHIMOWEILIZHANWU。ZONGZHI,YAOGENJUCHANPINHEHUANJINGQINGKUANGSHIDANGDUIQIANCHULIGONGYIZUOCHUDIAOZHENG,YIQUEBAOCHANPINBEIDUBIAOERDEQINGJIEXING。

ZAIQIANCHULIGUOCHENGZHONG,HAIBIXUZHUYIGENJUYIDUCHANPINDESHULIANG,JISHIGENGHUANJIANRONGYEHESUANRONGYE,FOUZEBUDANBUNENGDADAOQIANCHULIDEXIAOGUO,FANERHUISHIBEIDUBIAOERZHANSHANGZAZHI。

4.4 优化镀镍工艺

YOUHUADUNIEGONGYIYESHIJIEJUEDUNIEQIPAODECUOSHIZHIYI,ZAICAIYONGDIYINGLIANJIHUANGSUANYANDUNIESHI,KEZAIZHENGDUNIEZHIQIANZENGJIAYIDAOYUDUNIEGONGYI,ZHEIDUIJIEJUEJINSHUHUAQUYUQIPAOYOUHAOCHU。

4.5 加强对镀镍溶液的维护

WEILEBAOZHENGWAIQIAODEDUCENGZHIZUI,BIXUJIAQIANGDUIDUNIERONGYEDEWEIHU,YAODINGQIFENXIHEDIAOZHENGRONGYEDEGEXIANGCANSHU,SHIQIZAIGONGYIGUIDINGDEFANWEINEI;QICI,YAOGENJUYIDUCHANPINDESHULIANG,DUIRONGYEJINXINGHUOXINGTANCHULI,YICHUQURONGYENEIDEYOUJIZAZHI;DISAN,YAOGENJUCHANPINZHILIANGQINGKUANGHEYIDUCHANPINSHULIANG,DUIRONGYEJINXINGXIAODIANLIUCHULI,YICHUQURONGYENEIDEZAZHIJINSHULIZI,YIBAOZHENGDUNIECENGDECHUNDU,JIANGDIDUNIECENGDEYINGLI,JIANSHAOQIPAODEKENENGXING。

4.6 镀镍和镀金生产应连续进行

WAIQIAODEDUNIEHEDUJINSHENGCHANYINGLIANXUJINXING,YIJIANSHAODUJINCENGQIPAODEFASHENG。DANGCHUXIANTINGDIANHUOSHEBEIGUZHANGSHI,YIDANDUNIEHEDUJINSHENGCHANBUNENGLIANXUJINXINGSHI,YINGJIANGCHANPINJINFANGZAIQULIZISHUIZHONG,DANGGUZHANGPAICHUHOU,YINGYONGSUANRONGYEDUICHANPINJINXINGSUANXI,ZAIYONGQULIZISHUIPIAOXIGANJINGHOU,LIJIJINXINGXIADAOGONGXUSHENGCHAN。

4.7 带散热片陶瓷外壳的钨-铜或钼-铜散热片预处理问题

DAISANREPIANDETAOCIWAIQIAOCUNQIANHANQIANYINGDUISANREPIANXIANJINXINGYUCHULI,BIXUXIANDUSHANGYICENGNIE,ZAIJINXINGQIANHAN,YIJIANSHAOQIPAODEKENENGXING。

5 TAOLUN

ZAIDUOCENGTAOCIWAIQIAODEDIANDUSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,DANGDUNIEHEDUJINLIANXUSHENGCHANSHI, -BANSHIYOUYUBEIDUBIAOMIANBUQINGJIEERZAOCHENGDUNIECENGQIPAO;QICI,DANGDUNIERONGYEZHONGZAZHILIZINONGDUGUOGAO

SHIYEHUIYINFADUNIECENGQIPAO。YINCI,YAOJIEJUEDUNIECENGQIPAOWENTI,BIXUCAIQUXIASHUCUOSHI:

a.YANGEGONGYIWEISHENG,JIANSHAODUIWAIQIAOBEIDUBIAOERDEWURAN;

看一集电视剧赚60元b.YANGEWAIQIAOJINSHULINGJIANQIANHANGONGYI,JIANSHAOSHIMOWEILIDUIWAIXIANBIAOERDEZHANWU;

看一集电视剧赚60元c.YANGEQIANCHULIGONGYI,QUEBAOWAIQIAOBEIDUBIAOMIANDEQINGJIEXING:

看一集电视剧赚60元d.JIAQIANGDUIDUNIERONGYEDEWEIHU,QUEBAODUNIERONGYEGEXIANGCANSHUZAIGONGYIFANWEINEI,JIANSHAORONGYENEIYOUJIZAZHIHEZAZHIJINSHULIZIDEHANLIANG,BAOZHENGDUNIECENGDECHUNDU,JIANSHAODUNIECENGNEIYINGLI。

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