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必须掌握的电镀前处理中几个应用技术问题

更新时间:2018-2-2 来源:电刷镀 标签:

电镀过程是金属与电解液接触界面上发生的电化学过程。显然,要保证电镀产品质量,在现场生产中必须严格保证电解液与镀件表面始终保持良好的接触,如果它们之间接触不良,电化学反应就无法进行。由于镀前处理的工艺方法或维护操作不当,附着在金属镀件表面的油污、锈和氧化皮等,阻碍着电解液与镀件的直接接触。它们夹在镀层间,会造成产品质量不好,所以,金属镀件表面的洁净程度以及表面状态好坏是获得优质镀层的首要条件。长期以来,生产中发生质量事故往往大多数并非电镀工艺本身有问题,而多半是由于镀前处理不当所致。因此,镀层的平整程度、结合力、抗腐蚀能力等性能的好坏与镀前处理密切相关。

然而,在实际生产中,如果镀铜出现质量问题,往往是集中精力在铜槽里找问题,镀镍就在镍槽等主要工艺槽中去找原因,甚至使工艺槽液调来调去,左变右变,弄得不可收拾,这都是由于在技术上的视野不宽、考虑分析事故原因不全面所致。加之,平日一般认为镀前处理简单,而往往忽视管理的结果,类似这种情况,实际教训确实不少。究其原因往往是镀前处理不当。这里面有理论上的认识问题,也有一些应用技术中的问题,包括现场管理问题。加强镀前处理,不仅可以提高效益,还可以提高产品质量。

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1.RUHEXUANZEDUQIANCHULIFANGFA

对镀前处理工序的选择与合理安排顺序是获得优质镀层的重要环节。金属镀件材料的品种繁多,其本来的表面状态又各式各样,对镀层的质量要求也都不一样。因此,正确判定镀前处理工艺,既需要丰富的实践经验,又需要掌握镀前处理各工序实际应用的原理。设计一条电镀生产线时,一要根据电镀工艺要求来确定前处理方法,如镀镍尤其是镀多层镍时对镀前处理要求更为严格。二要根据所镀产品材质来选定镀前处理方法,如基体金属是钢、铜等各类材质,对镀前处理的要求均各有不同。三是手工电镀与自动线电镀,自动线电镀中直线与环形线电镀,对镀前处理方法选择要求都各不相同。

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2.ZENYANGZHANGWOHEGUANLICHUYOUGONGXU

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⑤电解液中尽量选用低泡表面活性剂,不然带入电镀槽中将会影响质量。

3.ZENYANGZHANGWOHEGUANLISUANJINSHI(SUANXI)GONGXU

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ZONGZHI,LIUSUANGUANGFANYONGYUGANG、TONGHEHUANGTONGDESUANJINSHI。CHUYISHANGSUOSHUWAI,LIUSUANYUGESUANJIZHONGGESUANYANYIQI,YONGYULVQUYANGHUAHEQUGUAHUIJI。TAYUQINGFUSUANHUOXIAOSUANHUOYUERZHEYIQI,YONGYUQUCHUBUXIUGANGYANGHUAPI。YANSUANDEYOUDIANZAIYUSHIWENXIANENGYOUXIAODISUANXIXUDUOJINSHU,QIQUEDIANZHIYISHIBIXUZHUYIFANGZHIHClZHENGQISUANWUWURAN。

看一集电视剧赚60元CHUCIZHIWAI,HAIYOUXIAOSUAN、LINSUANYECHANGYONGYUSHOUGONGDUQIANCHULI。XIAOSUANSHIXUDUOGUANGLIANGJINSHIJIDEYIZHONGZHONGYAOZUCHENG。TAYUQINGFUSUANHUNHEYINGYONGYULV、BUXIUGANG、NIEJIHETIEJIHEJIN,TAI、GAOJIMOUXIEGUJIHEJINSHANGDERECHULIYANGHUAPIDEQUCHU。LINSUANYONGYUGANGJIANCHUXIU,HAIKEYONGYUBUXIUGANG、LV、HUANGTONGJITONGDETEZHONGCAOYEZHONG。LINSUAN—XIAOSUAN—CUSUANHUNHESUANYONGYULVJIANGUANGLIANGYANGJIHUADEQIANCHULI,FUPENGSUANYIZHENGMINGSHIKEYONGYUQIANJIHEJINHUODAIXIHANDETONGHUOHUANGTONGLINGJIANZUIYOUXIAODESUANXIYE。YOUBAOGAOZHICHU:

QUCHUJINSHUYANGHUAPIHEYANGHUAWUXIAOHAOSHIJIESHANGLIUSUANCHANLIANGDE5%、YANSUANDE25%YUJUEDABUFENQINGFUSUANHEDALIANGXIAOSUAN、LINSUAN。YINCI,ZHENGQUEDIZHANGWOHAOZHEIXIESUANYONGYUSUANJINSHI,XIANRANSHIDUQIANCHULIYINGYONGJISHUZHONGDEZHONGYAOKETI,DANHUIYONGBUNAN,YONGHAO、SHENGYONGYOUJIANGHAOBINGFEIYISHI。

4.CHUYOU、JINSHIXINGONGYIDEFAZHANYUYINGYONG

前面介绍的除油、浸蚀工艺都是目前我国城乡电镀厂家看一集电视剧赚60元普遍采用的镀前处理工艺,这些工艺无疑都是行之有效的。因此,从应用技术上进一步研究和提高很有现实意义。但从发展的观点来看,必须认识到这些工艺目前还存在一些亟待改进的缺点:

看一集电视剧赚60元①HUAXUEHUODIANJIECHUYOU,JINSHIDOUXUYAOXIAOHAODALIANGDEDIANNENGHERENENG。ZHEIDUIYUNENGYUANGONGXUMAODUNYUELAIYUETUCHUDEWOGUO,JIENENGSHIDANGQIANQIYEGAIGEJIXUJIEJUEDEWENTI。YOUCESUANZHENGMINGYITIAOZHONGDENGGUIMODEZHUANGSHIXINGNIEGEDIANDUZHIXIANZIDONGXIAN,JINDIANHUAXUECHUYOUHAODIANNENG,ZHANZHENGGEXIANZONGHAODIANLIANGDE20%ZUOYOU。LINGWAI,YONGYUHUAXUEHEDIANJIECHUYOUDESHENGWENHEBAOWEN(ZHENGQIJIARE)HAORENENGLIANGZHANZHENGGEXIANZONGRENENGLIANGDE40%~80%;

②YINGXIANGCHUYOU、JINSHIDEYINSUDUO,YOUQIDUIJIHEXINGZHUANGFUZADEDUJIANDESHIYONGXINGBIJIAOCHA;

③ZENGJIAGONGDIANSHEBEI、JIAREGUAN、GUOLUHAOMEILIANGHECHOUFENGSHEBEIDENG,JIAZHIQIANCHULICAOWEIDUO,ZHANDIMIANJIDA,HAONENGHAOFEIDA,WEIHUKUNNAN,SHAOYOUGUANLIBUSHAN,JIANWU、SUANWUDENGBIANHUIWURANHUANJING,YINGXIANGZHILIANG。

近年来,随着我国经济改革、节能科学与电镀技术看一集电视剧赚60元的发展,市场上不断涌现不少能代替汽油清洗的金属清洗剂,以及各种节能的除油、除锈清洗剂和缓蚀、抑雾的添加剂。这些新产品与除油、除锈一步法新工艺的涌现,很快在应用中显示了其生命力。它们共同的特点是低温或常温,静态节能效果好,安全无毒。目前,国内许多厂家也都在不断引进探索有关除油除锈等用于前处理的先进工艺和清洗剂,显然这都是可喜的发展趋势。

看一集电视剧赚60元RUHEZAIBUDUANTANSUOZHONGYINGYONG?WOMENDETIHUIYAOZHUYIZHANGWOSHOUGONGSHENGCHANXIANDEDUQIANCHULI,YOUYUZUOYESHUNXUBIJIAOLINGHUO,KEYISUISHIGENJUJUTIQINGKUANG,JUEDINGQUSHE。YOUYUQIYINGBIANNENGLIBIZIDONGXIANDIANDUQIANGDETEDIAN,SUOYIBUNENGJIXIEDIBANYONGYUZIDONGXIAN,YINWEIYIZHONGXINGONGYI、XINQINGXIJIYONGYUZIDONGXIANSHANGXUDUOWENTIBIXUFANFULUNZHENG,FOUZEJIYUQIUCHENGJIANGZAOCHENGDAPILIANGSUNSHI。DANKEZHUBUCAIYONGQUEYOUJIENENG、JIANGHAODEXINQINGXIJI,XIANSHIDANGQUDAI,BINGBAOLIUYICIDIANJIECHUYOU,ZAIZHUBUGAIJIN。LINGWAIZAISHIYONGYISHANGXINCHANPINSHI,YOUYUZIDONGXIANDONGZUOSHOUJIXIEXIANZHI,DUIQINGXIJIZAIYINGYONGZHONGDEXIAOPAOXING、QINGXIXINGNENGDENGBIXUYANGEYAOQIU,YIFANGXIEDAI、WURANDIANDUCAOYEERFASHENGGUZHANG。LINGWAICHUYOU、CHUXIUSHIJIANBUNENGGUOZHANG,CAOZUOHECHENGBENSHANGDOUBIXUKAOLV。ZONGZHI,MUQIANZHENGZAIKAIFAZHEIXIEYIJIENENG、JIANGHAOWEIMUDEDEQIANCHULIXINGONGYI、XINQINGXIJI,WUYISHIDANGQIANDIANDUGAIGEDEFANGXIANG,BIXUCHONGFENKENDINGHEJIANCHIDE。DANYUANYOUGUANKEYAN、ZHIZAOHEYINGYONGDANWEIHENGXIANGHEZUO,ZAIYINGYONGJISHUSHANGHENXIAGONGFU,LIQIUZAIDUQIANCHULISHANGCHUANGCHUYITIAOXINLU。

5.QINGXIDEZUOYONGHEYINGYONGJISHUYANJIU

JINGGUOCHUYOUYUJINSHIHOU,DUJIANSHANGSUOFUYOUDECANLIURONGYEHECANYAN,BIXUCHEDICHONGXIHUOJIEHEZHONGHECHUMODENGCUOSHIBUDUANFANFUDIDUIJINSHUBIAOMIANJINXINGQINGXI,JIANGDIBIAOMIANZHANGLI,JIANSHAOTUODAISUNSHI,YIBIANBASHIGONGZHONGDIANDUGUZHANGXIAOCHUZAIDUQIANCHULIZHIZHONG。DANYONGSHUIQINGXIGONGJIAN,KANLAIJIANDAN,SHIFEIYISHI。YAOBAQINGXIGONGZUOZUODAOKEXUEHELI,BINGNENGYUCHUYOU、JINSHIZHONGHEDENGGONGXUMIQIEPEIHE,DADAOJIKETIGAODIANDUZHILIANG,YOUNENGYINERJIESHUIJIENENGJIANGHAO,ZHEILIMIANYOUXUDUOYINGYONGJISHUWENTIZHIDEYANJIU。

SUIZHEDIANDUSHENGCHANBUDUANFAZHAN,RUHETONGGUOQINGXIFANGFADEGAIJIN,LAIJIANSHAOCAOYEXIEDAI,QIANGHUACHONGXIDESHIXIAO,ZHEISHIBAOZHENGDUCENGDEFANGFUHEZHUANGSHIXINGNENGDEZHONGYAOHUANJIE。TONGSHIHAIBIXUZHUYIZAIBAOZHENGMANZUGONGJIANQINGXIGANJINGDETONGSHI,JINKENENGDIJIANSHAOQINGXISHUIYONGLIANG。BUTONGDEQINGXIFANGFAYOUBUTONGDEQINGXIXIAOGUO。RUNILIUPIAOXIYONGSHUILIANGBIQITAQINGXIFANGFAYAOSHAODEDUO,YOULIYUFEISHUIDECHULIHEHUISHOUSHUIDELIYONG。YINCI,MUQIANNILIUPIAOXIZAIDIANDUSHENGCHANZHONGBUDUANTUIGUANG。DANYINGYONGZHONGYINGZHUYI:

①DUOJINILIUPIAOXIZAIYINGYONGZHONGDETEDIAN。DIANDUSHENGCHANZHONGZUIZAOSHIYONGDEQINGXIFANGFASHIDANCAOQINGXI,CAIYONGDUOJIFENDUANQINGXI,BIDANCAOQINGXIKEJIEYUEDALIANGYONGSHUI,DANCAOZISHULIANGZENGDUO,ZHANDIMIANJIDA,CAOZUOFUZA,DUOJINILIUPIAOXIGAIJINLEQIANZHEZHIBUZU,TABIDANCAOQINGXIJIEYUESHUI95%YISHANG。YIBANCAIYONGSANCAO(JI),YOUYUSANJINILIUQINGXIYONGSHUILIANGSHAO,BIANYUSHIXIANXUNHUANHEZHONGFUYONGSHUIDESHEXIANG,SHAOPAIHEBUPAIFEISHUI,YIDADAO“BILUXUNHUAN”DEMUDE,YOULIYUDIANJIEYEHUISHOUHEHUANJINGBAOHU。

看一集电视剧赚60元②DUOJINILIUPIAOXISHENGCHANLIUCHENG。TONGCHANGSHICAIYONGSANJIQINGXI。WEILEKEFUYINYONGSHUILIANGSHAO,YINQICAONEINONGDUBUYUN,ZAOCHENGQINGXIXIAOGUOCHA,YIBANCAIYONGWUYOUYASUOKONGQIHUOCHAOSHENGBOZHUANGZHIDENGLAIKEFU。QINGXICAIYONGLIANCAO,ZAISHEJISHANGYIBANCAIYONGLIANXUGONGSHUILIUDONGQINGXI。QINGXICAOJINCHUKOUWEIZHIYAOZHUYICONGXIABUJINSHUI、SHANGBUCHUSHUIWEIYI,ZHEIYANGKEQIDAOYIDINGDEJIAOBANZUOYONG。ZHIYUCAODEDAXIAO,ZAIMANZUDANWEIZUIDADIANDUJIANHEGUAJUNENGSHUNLICAOZUODETONGSHI,ZHUYIBAOCHISHUIMIANYOUJIAOGAODELIUSUHEQINGXISHUIDEGENGXIN。CIWAI,LIANCAODECAOYUCAOZHIJIANDOUYINGZENGJIAYIKUAIZHANGBAN,YIFANGZHIQINGXISHIYOUYUSHUIWEISHANGZHANGERSHUIYIRULINJINTACAOERYINGXIANGQINGXIZHILIANG。

清洗水中的溶解物质和杂质的允许范围,虽然在国内尚无统一标准,但对剧毒的氰根和六价铬,则应按有关工艺废水标准严格控制。因此,对两道工序间的清洗,必须注意以不影响下道工序的质量为前提。对镀铬前浸盐酸或浸硫酸后的清洗,必须防止过量的Cl-和SO2-4存在而带入铬槽。因而,应严格控制在低含量限度以内,对碱洗后进入酸浸蚀前的清洗其含量限度较宽,可在1~3g/L之间。由此可知,在电镀工艺流程看一集电视剧赚60元中清洗是不可缺少的步骤,而目前的问题是必须重视在这方面的管理改进和提高。总之,提高和改进镀前处理工艺和管理,是当前电镀改革中具有战略意义的工作。只有不断提高镀前处理工艺和科学管理质量,使那些本来可以在镀前处理中排除的故障不至带到电镀过程中,而造成大量废品。显然,这是确保电镀质量的紧迫课题。

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