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电镀废水化学处理稳定达标难的原因分析

更新时间:2018-2-2 来源:电刷镀 标签:

中国电镀网:戴旭升

(FUJIANSHENGXINSHENGHUANJINGKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI,FUJIANZHANGZHOU363900)

摘要:废水处理是电镀集中区建设成功的关键,政府和企业投入了大量的资源,但经常没有好的结果,本文根据电镀废水的特点、废水分质现状、处理能力,结合电镀废水处理的工程设计特点、电镀添加剂等相关现状,分析导致废水处理效果波动的原因,希望对电镀废水处理的稳定达标有所帮助。

看一集电视剧赚60元GUANJIANCI:DIANDUFEISHUI;FEISHUIHUAXUECHULI;DIANDU

ZHONGTUFENLEIHAO:tq153,x522 WENXIANBIAOZHIMA:a WENZHANGBIANHAO:1001-9677(2015)02-0015-03

电镀是制造业不可或缺的一个环节,但电镀行业是一个重污染的行业,电镀废水中所含物质如重金属离子、有机化合物等对环境的危害性却很大,由于对电镀层的功能性、防腐性及装饰性等的要求不同,工厂的管理水平、电镀工艺、使用的化学品千差万别,废水的成分、浓度等会有很大的差异,导致废水的处理效果会产生波动。电镀废水处理的效果基本都是跟废水中所含的化学物质的化学性质有直接关联,本文拟对可能导致废水处理效果变差的原因进行分析,抛砖引玉,希望对废水处理稳定达标的经济性、可靠性有所帮助。

1·DIANDUFEISHUIDEFENLEIJIHUAXUECHULIFANGFA

电镀废水的有效处理方法有多种:化学法、物理法、物理化学法、生物法等,发达国家如美国,早在20世纪60年代就研制成功并应用了离子交换树脂、电解、电渗析、反渗透及薄膜蒸发等装置。但每一种电镀废水的处理方法都有其优点、有其缺陷、有其适用范围如:电镀贵金属的废水采用电解回收及除氰联合装置;镀镍废水采用反渗透装置,纯水制备采用离子交换装置;离子交换树脂法对废水混排的耐冲击的能力更差[1],r/o更多的适用于缸边、废水深度处理,其浓水、洗膜水也必须使用物理化学方法再处理才能做到排放达标,电絮凝对低浓度超标废水的处理效果差、成本高[2],必须数种方法结合才能有效,并且从能耗、经济的角度,化学法是一种可靠有效的方法,包括发达国家的欧美的大量电镀废水也采用化学法装置,几十年来中外实践证实这是可行的[3]。事实上,电镀废水由于各种因素的变数大,电镀工艺的加工工序特性变化大,不会有一种可以应对所有电镀废水处理的标准方法,应该根据不同废水的具体水质及化学特性,选择合理的方法的组合,有些时候甚至可能需要根据废水的性质分成几道处理。特别是现在倡导电镀厂进入集中地电镀工业园区、废水集中处理,如果不能从源头上将污染源(电镀分质废水)的性质分清楚、废水处理工程设计中将可能的变异因素考虑进来并充分论证、调试,充分考虑负荷的冲击,电镀集中区的形式可能导致集中治理变成集中污染的后果[4]。可能导致废水处理效果波动的原因分析如下:

1.1FENZHIBUCHEDI

(1)DUIDIANDUFEISHUIGAINIANDEPIANMIANRENSHI:DIANDUFEISHUIYINGSHIBAOKUODUQIAN、DIANDUBENSHEN、DUHOUCHULIDENGSUOYOUGONGXUCHANSHENGDEYIQIECONGZUOYECHANGDIPAICHUDEHANYOUDUYOUHAIWUDEHUNHEPAISHUI,BAOKUODIPINGQINGXISHUI、GUOLVJIQINGXISHUI、HUNRUDESHEBEILENGQUESHUIDENG。CHULEDIANDUPIAOXISHUI,DIANDUGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAIZHEDALIANGDEGUOLVJIQINGXISHUI、DAOGANGSHUI、LAOHUACAOYE、TUIDUYE、BOGUAFEIYEDENG,XIANGDUIYUPIAOXISHUI,ZHEIYILEIFEISHUIDELIANGSUIRANBUDA,DANNONGDUGENGGAO、CHULINANDUGENGDA,ZHEIYILEIDEFEISHUISHIDAOZHIDIANDUFEISHUICHULINANYIWENDINGDABIAODEGENYUANZHIYI[5];JISHIGUOJIADEGEZHONGDIANDUFEISHUICHULIDEBIAOZHUN、GUIFANRUDIANDUFEISHUIZHILIGONGCHENGJISHUGUIFAN(hj2002-2010)、DIANDUFEISHUICHULISHEJIGUIFANgbj136-90、DIANDUGONGYEWURANFANGZHIZUIJIAKEXINGJISHUZHINAN(SHIXING)(ZHENGQIUYIJIANGAO)DENGYEMEIYOUJIANGDAOGANGSHUI、LAOHUACAOYEDECHUZHISHIBIECHULAI,HUOJINJINZHISHIZHIDIANDUHUNHEFEISHUIERMEIYOUJUTIDECHULIFANGFA,DABUFENDEDIANDUCHANGDEFEISHUICHULIZHUANGZHIDOUMEIYOUKAOLVDIANJIEBOGUA、HUAXUETUIDU、HUAXUEDULAOHUAFEIYEDENGFEISHUIDECHULIJIANRONG,YOUYUZHEIYIBUFENDEFEISHUIDEPAIFANGLIANGSHAODANNONGDUGAO,YOUXIERENHUAIJIAOXINGXINLI,ERSUIYIPAIRUFEISHUICHULIXITONG,ZHEIJIANGDUIFEISHUICHULIDEXIAOGUOCHANSHENGHENDADECHONGJI[6-7]。

(2)DIANDUJIAGONGGONGYIJIJIAGONGCHANPINDEDUOYANGXINGYUFUZAXING,ZHUDINGLEDIANDUFEISHUIDEFUZAXING。

同种的电镀工序使用的化学品可能是不一样甚至性质是完全相反的:如塑料电镀的镀化学镍前的加速(也有人叫解胶),有人使用5%硫酸,有人使用10%盐酸、氢氟酸,有人使用含有机酸的解胶盐如草酸、氟硼酸,甚至也有人使用3%氢氧化钠[8],这些药品的化学性质差异极大,甚至是相反的,所以,配套的分水及污水处理流程也必须采用不同的分法、不同的处理流程;废水的分质及处理方式要根据变化而变化,否则难以稳定达标;不同的电镀镀种,其污染物的性质及其对达标的影响也是不一样的,其废水处理的难点是不一样的,比如镀锌看一集电视剧赚60元的钝化废水的处理是难点,塑料电镀的化学镍、焦铜是处理的难点;铝合金电镀的沉锌液既含有络合剂也可能含有氰化物,lds化镀的离子钯活化液槽液中含有六价铬。

(3)DIANDUDEGONGYILIUCHENGZHONGMEIYIDAODOUHUICHANSHENGFEISHUI,RUYIBANDESULIAODIANDUDEJIBENLIUCHENG:

除蜡-除油-亲水-粗化-中和-预浸-催化-解胶-化学镍-盐酸酸化-焦铜(或打底镍)-硫酸活化-酸铜-硫酸过硫酸铵活化-半光镍、光镍、封口镍-硫酸活化-铬酐活化-镀六价铬(镀三价铬)-封闭-剥挂,有做杂色工艺的工艺缸有:铜发黑、枪、珍珠镍、代铬等,镀锌合金基材的有镀底铜(氰化镀铜),功能性电镀的微氰镀金、氰化镀银、甲基磺酸镀锡看一集电视剧赚60元;镀锌的工艺又分为氰化镀锌、锌酸盐镀锌、氯化物镀锌、硫酸盐镀锌、镀锌镍合金等,镀后的钝化有六价铬钝化、三价铬钝化、无铬钝化等等,选择的工艺不同,废水的分质及处理方案也必须有相应的变化;很多的电镀厂环评时的工艺跟实际生产的工艺、使用的化学品等都会有更改、但污水处理的方案、排水的方案又不变,导致废水处理的成本升高、效果变差。

(4)BUTONGDEZHONGJINSHULIZIDECHENDIANphZHIBUYIYANG,YOUXIEFEISHUISHIJUEDUIBUNENGHUNZAIYIQICHENDIANDE,GENGGAODEphZHI(JIANXING)JINSHULIZIFANERRONGJIEXIALAI,YICHANGJIANDETONG、NIE、GE、XIN、YINWEILI,QIZUIJIAJIKEMANZUBIAOZHUNPAIFANGYAOQIUDEphZHIJIFANWEIRUBIAO1[9]。

YOUXIEHEJINDIANDUGONGYIZHONGFEISHUIBENSHENJIUHANYOULIANGZHONGYISHANGDEZHONGJINSHULIZI,RUDAINIEDEHANTONG、XI,DAIGEHANXI、GU,QIANGSEHANXI、NIE,HUANGTONGHANTONG、XINDENG,ZHEIYILEIDEFEISHUICHULIYAOSHIBIECHULAI,BIYAOQINGKUANGXIAYAOXIANYUCHULI。

看一集电视剧赚60元(5)YOUJIWURANWUFENLIANGLEI:YILEISHIZHUYANZHONGQILUOHEHUOFUZHUDEHANTANYOUJIWU、HANDANLINDEYOUJIWUDENG、QIHANLIANGJIAODA,DUIFEISHUICHULIDEYINGXIANGBIJIAOMINGXIAN;LINGYILEISHIDIANDUYAOSHUIZHONGDETIANJIAJI,YIBANSHIGEZHONGGAIXINGDEHANTAN、DAN、LIN、LIUDEYOUJIHUAHEWU,QIZAICAOYEZHONGDEHANLIANGBIJIAODI、DUIHUAXUEFAZHONGJINSHUCHULIDEYINGXIANGBUDA,DANDUIcod、ANDAN、ZONGLINDENGZHIBIAOYOUXIANZHUYINGXIANG,HUODUIss、PAOMODENGWAIGUANZHUANGTAIYOUBULIANGDEYINGXIANG。BINGQIEKENENGDUIWULICHULIHUOWULIHUAXUECHULIFANGFADEMO、SHUZHIDENGYOUQIANZAIDEYINHUAN,YEBIXUYINQIZUGOUDEZHONGSHI。DIANDU,QIZHONGDUIFEISHUICHULIYINGXIANGZUIDADESHIGEZHONGLUOHEWUHUOKEYIQILUOHEZUOYONGDEHUAXUEPINRUHUATONGDEedta、HUANIEDENINGMENGSUANNA、JIAOTONGDEJIAOJIA、JIUSHISUAN、WUQINGJIANTONGDEhedpDENG[10-11];DUIHANLUOHEJIDEDIANDUFEISHUIBIXUFENKAIDANDUYUCHULI。

看一集电视剧赚60元(6)DUIHUNPAIDEFEISHUI,BIXUZHENDUIXINGDIDUIZHENGXIAYAO,FOUZESHIJIADUOYAO、MEIXIAOGUO,BIRUHANQINGFEISHUIZHONGHUNRUNIELIZI,SHIYONGCHUANTONGDECILVSUANNALIANGBUPOQINGHUIXIAOHAODALIANGDECILVSUANNA,BINGQIEYOUYUSHENGCHENGQINGYANGHUAGAONIEDEZHUBUFENJIEDAOZHIWUNIDECHENDIANXIAOGUOCHA,WUNISHANGFU,ERSHIYONGSHUANGYANGSHUIZUOYANGHUAJIQUESHIYIZHONGJINGJIYOUXIAODECHULIFANGFA[12]。

(7)由于电镀过程的多样性,如镀锌、镀铜、镀镍、镀铬看一集电视剧赚60元、镀金、镀银、镀锡,每一金属镀种(如镀铜)又可细分为镀碱铜(氰化镀铜)、焦磷酸盐镀铜、镀酸铜。特别是很多合金镀种,如镀枪色,镀槽中不仅含有重金属离子、还含有各种各样的络合剂、微量的特殊添加剂等等,络合剂、添加剂等会干扰过渡金属离子的沉淀。

看一集电视剧赚60元DUIDIANDUGONGYEYUANQU,FEISHUIDEFENZHIGUANLIYOUWEIZHONGYAO。①DANGQIANDABUFENDIANDUGONGYEYUANQUDIANDUFEISHUIFENWEIHANQING、HANGE、HANNIE、ZONGHEFEISHUI、SUANJIANFEISHUI、QIANCHULIFEISHUIDENG,DANXIANGQIANMIANSUOSHU:TONGYIDUZHONGDEFEISHUIBUYIDINGTONGZHI:RUHANTONGDEJIANTONGFEISHUI、SUANTONGFEISHUI、HUATONGFEISHUIDEXINGZHI、CHULIFANGFASHIWANQUANBUYIYANGDE。ZAIBIRU,TONGYANGSHISUANXI,YOUDEYONGLIUSUAN、YOUDEYONGYANSUAN、SHENZHIYOUYONGJIAJIHUANGSUAN、NINGMENGSUANDE;TONGYANGSHIDUQIANGSE,YOUSUANQIANG、JIANQIANGGONGYIZHIFEN,QIANZHESHIYONGFUHUAWUZUOLUOHEJI、HOUZHESHIYONGJIAOLINSUANJIAZUOLUOHEJI。②FEISHUISHOUJISHUSONGBUTONGCHANGJIADETONGYILEISHUIJIZHONGYUYITIAOGUANDAOSHOUJI,HUNPAIZERENFENBUQING,FEISHUISHUIZHIJIANKONGBUDAOWEI,FEISHUIHUNPAICHAZHAOBUJISHI,YENANYICHAZHAO,BUNENGYOUXIAODIKONGZHIHUNPAIFEISHUI,CHANGCHANGYINHUNPAIYUANYINZAOCHENGCHUSHUIDEQINGHEGECHAOBIAO;CHULIXIAOGUOBUWENDING;YUNXINGFEIYONGJUGAOBUXIA[13-15]。

看一集电视剧赚60元(8)DIANDUCHANGZHUYAOSHILAILIAOJIAGONGDE,SUIZHUWAIBUHUANJINGDEBIANHUA,DIANDUDEGONGYI、DUZHONGYEKENENGSUIZHIGAIBIAN,ZHEIZHONGGAIBIANYEHUIYINGXIANGWUSHUICHULISHESHIDEYUNXINGXIAOGUO。TONGYIZHONGWURANWUHUIYOUDUOZHONGLAIYUAN:ZAIDIANDUCHANGGONGZUODERENDOUZHIDAO,FEISHUIDELAIYUANCHULEZHENGCHANGSHENGCHANDEPIAOXISHUI、HAIHUIYOUGUOLVJIQINGXISHUI、CHULICAOYESHIDEGANGJIAOJIQIQINGXISHUIDENG。YOUXIESHIHOU,SHENZHIWURANWUDENONGDUBIANHUA、CHULITIAOJIANYEYAOSUIZHIGAIBIAN,BIRUZHENGCHANGDELIUJIAGEDEHUAXUECHULI,QIZHONGDEphZHISHIYIGEHENZHONGYAODEYINSU,DABUFENDEZILIAO(BAOKUOWAIGUODEZILIAO)DOUZHISHILONGTONGDIXIEHAIYUANSHIDEphZAI2.5~3.0ZHIJIAN,SHISHISHANG,JIARULIUJIAGEDENONGDUGENGGAO,YAOQIUphGENGDI(ph=1)CAINENGBAOZHENGFANYINGDEWANQUAN[16];YOUYUDIANDUFEISHUIDEXINGZHIDUOYANG、CHENGFENDUOBIAN、CHULIGONGYIFUZA、CHULIXIAOGUOBODONGJIAODA。RUGUOMEIYOUGAOQINGCHUFEISHUIDEXINGZHI、KENENGDEXIANGHUZUOYONG,CAIQUBIYAODEYUCHULICUOSHI,HENNANBAOZHENGFEISHUICHULIXITONGDEWENDINGGAOXIAOYUNXING。FEISHUICHULIYINGGAIGENJUDIANDUGONGYI、DUZHONG、FEISHUIDEXINGZHIDENGZUOCHONGFENPINGGU。

1.2RENZHIDETUOJIE

(1)YUANSHIPURENWEIDIANDUYEJIECUNZAIYIGEBUJIANKANGDEXIANXIANG:ZAIZHISHIJIEGOUSHANG,GONGYIJISHUYUSANFEIZHILISHITUOJIEDE,ERZHEJIANRONGDEZAJIABUDUO。YIFANGMIAN,GAOGONGYIJISHUDERENBUSHUXISANFEIZHILI,SHENZHIZAISHEJIGONGYIBUJUSHIJIUWEIKAOLVFEISHUIDEHELIFENZHIPAIFANG,ERDAOZHIHUNHEFEISHUICHULIDECHENGBENJUGAONANXIA;LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHUANYECONGSHISANFEIZHILIDEYOUBUSHUXIDIANDUGONGYIJISHU、BULEJIEDIANDUSANFEIDEFUZAXING,BAQITAXINGYEKEYONGDEFANGFAJIANDANBANGUOLAIYONG。YOUXIEGONGCHENGGONGSISHENZHIWEILETUIGUANGQISUOWEIDEXIANJINJISHU,YOUYIWUYIDIKUADAMOUXIEJISHUDEYOUSHI、ERYOUGUYIHULVEJISHUBENSHENDEQUEXIAN[17]。ZHEIZHONGBUJIANKANGZHUANGTAIZAOCHENGLEHENDADEWEIHAIYUJINGJISUNSHI,SHIHUANJINGYANZHONGBEIWURAN。FEISHUICHULIDEFUZAXINGZAIYU,MEIGEDIANDUCHANGDEGONGYI、PAIFANGLIANG、XUQUCHUWUDENONGDU、CHANGDIDENGDOUBUJINXIANGTONG,WUFAYONGYIGETONGYIDEMOSHIQUDUIDAI,ERBIXUYOUJIDONGGONGYIYOUSHENZHICHULIFANGFAHESHEBEIDERENLIANSHOU,CAINENGQUDEJISHENGQIAN、XIAOGUOYOULIANGHAODEYUQIMUDE。

(2)CHUANTONGDEDIANDUSHENGCHANDANWEI、DIANDUTIANJIAJIKAIFASHENGCHANDANWEI、DIANDUFEISHUICHULISHEJIYUNYINGDANWEIWANGWANGSHIHUBUXIANGGAN、GEXINGQISHIDE,ZHEIYANGKEGUANSHANGYEDAOZHILEDIANDUFEISHUICHULIDEXIAOGUOBUNENGBAOZHANGWENDINGDABIAO。TEBIESHIDIANDUTIANJIAJIDESHENGCHANDANWEI,WANGWANGYISHANGYEJISHUMIMIWEIYOU,BUYUANYIJIANGQIZHONGDEHUAXUEPINDEZUCHENG、XINGZHIGONGKAI,SHENZHIYOUYIWUDAOSHIYONGZHE。RUXIANZAITICHANGDELVHUAWUXISANJIAGEDUGEJISHU,QICAOYEDEZUCHENGHANYOUDALIANGDEYOUJIWULUOHEJI(SUIRANQILUOHENENGLIBIJIAORUO)HEANDAN,CONGDUCENGXINGNENG、FEISHUICHULIDEXIAOGUO、NANYICHENGDU、HUANJINGXIAOYIJIANG,BINGBUBICHUANTONGDEGONGYIYOUYOUSHI,ERTIANJIAJIGONGSIDOUSHIXUANCHENGZHIYAOJIAJIANCHENDIANZHONGJINSHUJIUKEYILE,YIWEIDIQIANGDIAOQUDAILEZHONGWURANDELIUJIAGE、SHIYONGDUXINGSHILIUJIAGEBAIFENZHIYIDESANJIAGE,JIANGDILEZHONGJINSHUDEHANLIANGDUOSHAOBEI;KEYITIGAODIANLIUXIAOLV、JIEYUENENGYUAN,BIKOUBUTANSHIYONGLEDALIANGDELUOHEJIDESUOZENGJIADEFEISHUICHULINANDU、HANYOUDALIANGDEANYANDAOZHISHUITIDEFUYINGYANGHUADEFENGXIAN。

(3)DIANDUWUSHUICHULIDEGONGCHENGSHEJIJIANSHEDANWEIBUSHUXIDIANDUYAOSHUIDEHUAXUECHENGFENYESHIDAOZHIWUSHUICHULISHESHIYUNXINGXIAOLVCHA、BODONGDADEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。RUGUOKAISHISHEJIMEIYOUBADUZHONG、DUYECHENGFENZUOWEIGUANJIANYINSUKAOLV,SHIHUIDAOZHIHUANBAOSHESHIDEYUNXINGDABUDAOSHEJIDEYAOQIU。DABUFENGONGCHENGGONGSISHANZHANGMOUZHONGCHULIJISHU,HUIYOUYIKUADAQIZUOYONG,SHUBUZHIMEIYIZHONGFANGFADOUSHIYOUQIYOUSHI、YEYOUQIDUANBANDE,MEIYOUYIZHONGFANGFAKEYIMIANDUISUOYOUDEDIANDUFEISHUIDE,YINGGAISHICHONGFENYANJIUSHIBIEDIANDUWURANWUDELAIYUAN、ZHONGLEIHEXINGZHIDEJICHUSHANG,MANZUJISHUKEXING、JINGJIHELI、CAOZUOJIANDAN、XIAOGUOKEKAODEDUOZHONGWURANCHULISHOUDUANDEHELIZUHE。

电镀厂复合型人才建设薄弱。如上所述,电镀废水处理要稳定达标的难度很大,处理过程中的变异因素很多,国内大部分的中小型电镀厂的技术人员环保意识淡薄,对清洁生产、分质分流、减少跑冒滴漏等有利于生产过程中减少污染物的产生、降低末端处理难度等管理措施的执行被动,而电镀厂的污水处理技术人员也存在着对电镀药水、电镀工艺流程不熟悉的状况。

2·JIELUN

看一集电视剧赚60元DIANDUFEISHUICHULIYAOBAOZHENGWENDINGDABIAOXUYAOZAICHONGFENSHIBIEFEISHUIXINGZHIDEJICHUSHANGFENZHIFENLIU、FENBIECHULI,YAOCHEDIFENZHIXUYAODIANDUCHANGDEGONGYIRENYUAN、WUSHUICHULIGONGCHENGSHEJIJISHURENYUAN、YAOSHUIKAIFAJISHURENYUANSANFANGTONGLIHEZUO。XIANZAIGUOJIATUIDONGDIANDUYUANQUHUA,JIUSHIGEZHONGBUTONGDEDUZHONGTONGCHUYIGEFEISHUICHULIXITONGZHONG,RUGUOBUNENGHENHAODISHIBIESHANGSHUDEZHONGZHONGBIANYIYINSU,DUIWUSHUICHULIDESHEBEI、SHESHI、RENYUAN、HUANJINGGUANLICUOSHIDENGHUISHIYIGEGENGDADETIAOZHAN;GAOBUHAOHUISHIYUYUANWEI,BIANFENSANWURANCHENGJIZHONGWURAN。ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,YAOBAOZHENGDIANDUFEISHUICHULIDEWENDINGDABIAOXUYAODIANDUCHANG、WUSHUICHULICUOSHISHEJISHIGONG、HUANBAOGUANLI、FUHEXINGRENCAIDENGZHUDUOFANGMIANDEXIETONG,SHIYIGEXITONGGONGCHENGTEBIESHIDANGQIANGULIJIANSHEDIANDUCHANYEYUANQUDEXINGSHIXIA,YINGGAIZAISHIBIEFEISHUIXINGZHIDEJICHUSHANGXIFENGEZHONGZHUANYEDEBIAOMIANCHULIXIAOQU:RUGANGTIEDELINHUAFALAN、LVYANGHUA、SULIAODIANDU、GANGTIEDUXIN、DUGUIJINSHUDENG,YUANQUJIANSHESHIYIGEXITONGGONGCHENG,ZHISHAOBAOKUOJISHUSHANG、JIZHISHANG、GUANLISHANG、SHENGTAIHUANJINGSHANG、RUHESHIYINGCHANYELIANDEFAZHANSHANG、RENCAIPEIXUNSHANGDENGJIGEFANGMIAN。ZAIHUANPINGDEWUSHUICHULIGONGCHENGSHEJIXUYAOYOUDIANDUZHUANJIA、WUSHUICHULIZHUANJIA、DIANDUTIANJIAJIZHUANJIADELUNZHENGPINGSHENYIJIAN,ZHEIYANGYUANTOUKONGZHI,CAINENGBAOZHENGDIANDUFEISHUICHULIJINGJIKEXINGDEWENDINGDABIAO。

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